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    大學英語精讀第四冊 Unit Nine:Journey West

    時間:2005-04-20 16:00來源:互聯網 提供網友:魚尾巴 ? 字體: [ ]
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    Text
    In 1976, during America's bicetennial celebration, a family decided1 to travel to the American West instead of joining the majority of people that were celebrating on the East Coast. They wanted to follow the trails that the pioneers had made when they began to settle the West. The family was looking forward to making their own discoveries.

    JOURNEY WEST

    Jim Doherty
    We began our trip out West on June 19, 1976, a time when millions of other American families were preparing to crowd into the Bicentennial shrines2 of the East. We sized up America's 200th birthday celebration a bit differently. Although the Republic may have been born in the East, it had spent most of its time and energies since then moving west. So we resolved to head in the same direction in 1976, following the old pioneer trails and the famous rivers. Concentrating primarily on Wyoming and Montana, we would explore such legendary4 mountain ranges as the Big Horns, the Bitterroots and the Swan.
    There was one problem though, I was sure our four kids -- educated about the West through the movies -- would be disappointed. As an environmental editor, I knew that strip mining was tearing up many scenic5 areas and that clear-cutting was causing widespread damage in the mountains. I was well aware that draining and damming were making a mess of many rivers and wetlands. The grasslands7 were overgrazed and coal-burning power were befouling the air. Wildlife was on the run everywhere and tourists were burning the national parks into slums.
    I was prepared for the worst. But how to prepare the kids?
    The answer, we decided, was to undertake our journey not just as tourists on a holiday, but as reporters on the trail of "the real West." So all of us, from my kids to my wife, pledged to do our homework before we left and to record on the way everything we did, saw, hear, felt or thought.
    Predictably, we did not uncover any new truths about the West in three short weeks. But there were plenty of surprises on that 5,200-mile journey and the biggest one was this: I had been wrong. Some of the troubles we saw were every bit as bad as I had dreaded8. But by and large, the country was as glorious, as vast and as overwhelmingly spectacular as those know-nothing kids had expected!
    Half the fun of going west is discovering, along the way, how much the past is still with us. Old wives'tales. Little old farm towns shaded from the summer heat by enormous maple9 trees on streets. White-haired folks reading the paper on their farmhouse10 porches at sunset. Worn-out windmills standing11 alone in pasture… All in all, we did not see much evidence that small-town America is vanishing as we traveled through rural Wisconsin, Minnesota and South Dakota. It's true that many new homes are rising in many old cornfields. But for the most part, life in vast areas of the American heartland remains12 pretty much the same as it was 30 and 40 years ago.
    In the hilly farmlands of southern Wisconsin and Minnesota, we found the fields and forests green and the creeks14 still flowing. The farms, with their "eggs for sale" signs and enormous "grandma's gardens" in the front yards, looked prosperous and secure. Not much further north, though, a drought was threatening the land.
    In South Dakota, the situation was far worse. "Haven't seen anything like this since the dirty thirties," one farmer told us. Even in normal times, most of South Dakota is dry. Now it was being burned to a crisp. The water holes were dried up and we saw dead cattle lying here and there on the treeless, rolling range. Some farmers were hauling water out to their thirsty stock daily; others were trying to drill deep wells.
    We saw two distinctly different Wyomings. We crossed the first Wyoming between the Black Hills and the Big Horns. Wide-open grassland6, fenced and colorless, with red rocks and sweet-smelling shrubs15 scattered16 about, it was typical of a hard-used land. Cattle grazed on it. Oil rigs pumped on it and power lines zigzagged18 all over it. Freight trains labored19 across it, hauling coal from strip mine to power plant, hauling uranium and other minerals to refineries20. This Wyoming, clearly, was booming.
    The other Wyoming started some miles east of Buffalo21, an unexpectedly graceful22 community in the foothills of the Big Horns. On one side of town, antelope23 abounded24 by fours and fives in the hills, and yellow wild flowers lined the roads. On the other side rose the Big Horns and nearly 10,000 feet up, Powder River Pass cut through them.
    The Big Horn canons were incredible, with four and five distinct layers of pine trees somehow clinging to the steep, rocky walls. Far, far below, Ten Sleep Creek13 was a thin, white torrent25 on the rampage. In some of the less wild terrain26, we saw deer on the high green hillsides and, as we climbed up toward our picnic spot, we flushed two does and two fawns27. That night, we fell asleep with the roar of Ten Sleep in our ears.
    We had picked by chance for our stopping place an area rich in western lore3. At one time, Ten Sleep -- a small village at the western base of the Big Horns -- lay midway between two great Indian camps. In those days, the Indians measured distances by the number of sleeps and the halfway28 mark between those two camps was exactly ten sleeps.
    We crossed the Continental29 Divide for the first time on a cool morning, cutting through the Rockies in northwestern Wyoming at a place called Togwatee Pass (at a height of 9,656 feet). Our van had just leveled off and we were rounding a downhill bend when, all at once, there they were, stretched out before us in a spectacular procession of massive white peaks: the Tetons. My wife gasped31 and, behind us, the kids began to yell. In truth, it was a startling sight—— a sight none of us will ever forget.
    We had seen mountains before, but we had never experienced anything even remotely like that initial impact of the Tetons. It was exactly what we had in mind when we decided to take our first trip "out West."

    New Words
    bicentennial
    a. happening once in 200 years; of a 200th anniversary
    n. 200th anniversary

    shrine
    n. a building or place associated with sth. or sb. deeply respected 神殿,圣地

    resolve
    vt. make up one's mind (to do sth); decide 決心;決定

    trail
    n. a path across rough country made by the passing of people or animals 小徑,小道

    legendary
    a. of, like or told in a legend 傳奇(似)的

    mountain range
    a row of connected mountains 山脈

    disappointed
    a. sad at not getting what was hoped for 失望的

    environmental
    a. having to do with environment 環境的

    environment n.

    editor
    n. 編輯

    strip mine
    n. a mine which is operated from the surface by removing the overlying layers of earth 露天礦
    vt. take (a mineral or ore) from a strip mine 露天開采(礦物)

    scenic
    a. of or having to do with natural scenery 天然風景的

    clear-cut
    vt. cut all the trees in (a given area or forest) 將……的樹木砍伐光

    drain
    vt. carry away the surface water of 排(水等)

    dam
    n. a wall or bank built to keep back water 壩,水閘
    vt. build a dam across

    mess
    n. staate of confusion, dirt or disorder32 混亂、骯臟

    wetland
    n. land or areas containing much soil moisture; swamp 沼澤地

    grassland
    n. land covered with grass, esp. wild open land for cattle to feed on 草地;牧場

    overgraze
    vt. allow animals to graze to the point of damaging the grass cover 在……上過度放牧

    power plant
    發電廠 befoul
    vt. make dirty 弄臟

    wildlife
    n. animals and plants which live ad grow in natural conditions 野生動植物

    tourist
    n. a person making a tour for pleasure 游客

    slum
    n. (often pl.) street, alley33, or building in a crowded, run-down, dirty part of a city or town, where the poorest people live 貧民窟

    undertake
    vt. take up (a duty, etc.); start on (work) 承擔;從事

    pledge
    vt. make a solemn promise or agreement 發誓,保證

    predictably
    ad. as one may predict

    uncover
    vt. remove a cover from; find out, discover 揭開……蓋子;發現

    know-nothing
    a. ignorant
    n. ignoramus

    shade
    vt. shelter from direct light or heat 蔭蔽

    maple
    n. 槭樹,楓樹

    folk (AmE folks)
    n. people

    worn-out
    a. used until no longer fit for use; very tired 破舊的;精疲力盡的

    windmill
    n. a mill operated by the action of the wind on sails which revolve34 風車

    pasture
    n. grassland for cattle; grass on such land 牧場;牧草

    rural
    a. of or relating to the country, country people or life, or agriculture 農村的

    cornfield
    n. (AmE) 玉米田;(BrE)小麥田,谷物田

    heartland
    n. any area or region that is the center of, or vital to , a country 心臟地帶,中心地帶

    hilly
    a. full of hills

    grandma
    n. (informal) grandmother

    secure
    a. safe; having no doubt, fear, or anxiety 安全的

    drought
    n. a long period of dry weather, when there is not enough water干旱

    crisp
    a. dry; hard; easily broken 脆的;易碎的
    n. something crisp

    rolling
    a. rising and falling in long gentle slopes 綿延起伏的

    haul
    vt. pull or drag with force 拖曳

    stock
    vt. farm animals, usu. cattle 牲畜

    distinctly
    ad. clearly

    graze
    v. feed on growing grass (in) 吃(……的)草

    rig
    n. 鉆塔

    pump
    vt. force (water, etc.) out by using a pump 泵

    zigzag17
    vi. go in a zigzag 彎彎曲曲地行走,蜿蜒曲折
    n. a line shaped like a row of z's

    freight
    n. the goods carried from place by water or by land 貨物

    fright train
    n. (AmE) goods train

    uranium
    n. 鈾

    refinery
    n. a building and apparatus35 for refining sth. (metals, oil, or sugar) 精煉廠,提煉廠

    boom
    vi. grow rapidly; develop rapidly in population and importance 迅速發展,興盛

    graceful
    a. (of shape or movement) pleasing to the eye 優雅的

    grace n.

    foothill
    n. a low hill at the foot of a mountain 山麓小丘

    antelope
    n. a deer-like, fast-running animal with thin legs 羚羊

    abound
    vi. have or exist in great numbers or quantities (物產)豐富

    canyon
    n. a deep narrow steep-sided valley (usu. with a river flowing through) 峽谷

    distinct
    a. easily seen, heard, understood; plain; clearly different or separate 明顯的;不同的

    pine
    n. 松樹;松木

    cling
    vi hold tightly; remain close 緊握著;粘著

    steep
    a. rising or falling sharply or at a large angle 陡峭的

    torrent
    n. a violently rushing stream of water 激流

    rampage
    n. excited and violent behavior 橫沖直撞,狂暴行徑

    terrain
    n. a stretch of land, esp. when considered in relation to its nature 地帶,地形

    hillside
    n. the sloping side of a hill 山腰

    picnic
    n. 野餐

    roar
    n. a deep loud sound as of a lion, or thunder, etc. 吼叫,轟鳴

    western
    a. of, in, from, characteristic of the west.

    lore
    n. tradition and knowlege, esp. handed down from past times (口頭)傳說

    midway
    a.& ad. in a middle position

    continental
    a. (typical) of a very large mass of land; (AmE) of or in the North American continent 大陸(性)的;北美大陸的

    van
    n. a covered motor-vehicle for carrying goods and sometimes people 客貨兩用車

    level
    v. bring or come into a horizontal plane

    downhill
    a. (sloping or going) towards the bottom of a hill

    stretch
    v. (cause to) become wider or longer; spread out 伸延

    procession
    n. a line of people, vehicles, etc. moving forward in an orderly way 行列,隊伍

    massive
    a. large, heavy and solid; huge 粗大的,巨大的

    gasp30
    v. struggle for breath with open mouth, esp. because of surprise, chock, etc. 喘息
    n. catching36 of the breath through surprise, pain, etc.

    yell
    v. make a loud sharp cry or shout, as of pain, excitement, etc.; say or shout loudly

    remotely
    ad. to a very small degree; far away 很少地,極小地;遙遠地

    remote a.

    initial
    a. occurring at the beginning; first 最初的,開始的

    impact
    n. a strong effect; the striking of one thing against another 影響;沖擊

    Phrases & Expressions
    size up
    form an opinion or judgment about 估計;品評

    a bit
    to some degree; rather 有點兒,相當

    tear up
    destroy completely by tearing 撕毀,毀掉

    make a mess of
    disorder, spoil or ruin 把……弄臟;把……弄糟

    on the run
    running or hurrying from place to place; in flight 奔跑著;奔逃著

    do one's homework
    make necessary preparations before taking part in an important activity 作必要的準備

    by and large
    on the whole; in general

    all in all
    (informal) on the whole

    here and there
    scattered about; in various places 零星分散,在各處

    burn to a crisp
    burn black or dry 烤焦

    cut through
    穿過,穿透

    cling to
    keep a firm hold on 緊緊抓住

    be/go on the / a rampage
    go about in an excited, mad and violent manner 橫沖直撞

    by chance
    unintentionally; by accident 偶然地;意外地

    at one time
    formerly 從前,曾經

    level off/out
    move horizontally (after climbing); remain steady (after a rise) (爬高后)水平移動;(上升后)達到平穩

    stretch out
    extend prolong 延伸,延續

    in truth
    truly; really 的確

    have in mind
    be considering, intend 考慮,打算

    Proper Names
    Wyoming
    懷俄明(美國州名)

    Montana
    蒙大拿(美國州名)

    the Big Horns
    大霍恩山脈(美國山名)

    the Bitterroots
    比特魯特山脈(美國山名)

    the Swan
    斯旺山(美國山名)

    Wisconsin
    威斯康星(美國州名)

    South Dakota
    南達科地(美國州名)

    the Black Hills
    布萊克山(美國山名)

    Buffalo
    布法羅(美國城市名)

    Powder River
    波德河(美國河流名)

    Ten Sleep Creek
    十眠河(美國河流名)

    the Rockies
    洛磯山脈(美國山名)

    Togwatee Pass
    托格瓦堤關(美國地名)

    the Tetons
    提騰山脈(美國山名)


    點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

    1 decided lvqzZd     
    adj.決定了的,堅決的;明顯的,明確的
    參考例句:
    • This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents.這使他們比對手具有明顯的優勢。
    • There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting.英國人和中國人打招呼的方式有很明顯的區別。
    2 shrines 9ec38e53af7365fa2e189f82b1f01792     
    圣地,圣壇,神圣場所( shrine的名詞復數 )
    參考例句:
    • All three structures dated to the third century and were tentatively identified as shrines. 這3座建筑都建于3 世紀,并且初步鑒定為神廟。
    • Their palaces and their shrines are tombs. 它們的宮殿和神殿成了墓穴。
    3 lore Y0YxW     
    n.傳說;學問,經驗,知識
    參考例句:
    • I will seek and question him of his lore.我倒要找上他,向他討教他的淵博的學問。
    • Early peoples passed on plant and animal lore through legend.早期人類通過傳說傳遞有關植物和動物的知識。
    4 legendary u1Vxg     
    adj.傳奇(中)的,聞名遐邇的;n.傳奇(文學)
    參考例句:
    • Legendary stories are passed down from parents to children.傳奇故事是由父母傳給孩子們的。
    • Odysseus was a legendary Greek hero.奧狄修斯是傳說中的希臘英雄。
    5 scenic aDbyP     
    adj.自然景色的,景色優美的
    參考例句:
    • The scenic beauty of the place entranced the visitors.這里的美麗風光把游客們迷住了。
    • The scenic spot is on northwestern outskirts of Beijing.這個風景區位于北京的西北遠郊。
    6 grassland 0fCxG     
    n.牧場,草地,草原
    參考例句:
    • There is a reach of grassland in the distance.遠處是連綿一片的草原。
    • The snowstorm swept the vast expanse of grassland.暴風雪襲擊了遼闊的草原。
    7 grasslands 72179cad53224d2f605476ff67a1d94c     
    n.草原,牧場( grassland的名詞復數 )
    參考例句:
    • Songs were heard ringing loud and clear over the grasslands. 草原上揚起清亮激越的歌聲。 來自《現代漢英綜合大詞典》
    • Grasslands have been broken and planted to wheat. 草原已經開墾出來,種上了小麥。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
    8 dreaded XuNzI3     
    adj.令人畏懼的;害怕的v.害怕,恐懼,擔心( dread的過去式和過去分詞)
    參考例句:
    • The dreaded moment had finally arrived. 可怕的時刻終于來到了。
    • He dreaded having to spend Christmas in hospital. 他害怕非得在醫院過圣誕節不可。 來自《用法詞典》
    9 maple BBpxj     
    n.槭樹,楓樹,槭木
    參考例句:
    • Maple sugar is made from the sap of maple trees.楓糖是由楓樹的樹液制成的。
    • The maple leaves are tinge with autumn red.楓葉染上了秋天的紅色。
    10 farmhouse kt1zIk     
    n.農場住宅(尤指主要住房)
    參考例句:
    • We fell for the farmhouse as soon as we saw it.我們對那所農舍一見傾心。
    • We put up for the night at a farmhouse.我們在一間農舍投宿了一夜。
    11 standing 2hCzgo     
    n.持續,地位;adj.永久的,不動的,直立的,不流動的
    參考例句:
    • After the earthquake only a few houses were left standing.地震過后只有幾幢房屋還立著。
    • They're standing out against any change in the law.他們堅決反對對法律做任何修改。
    12 remains 1kMzTy     
    n.剩余物,殘留物;遺體,遺跡
    參考例句:
    • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
    • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.殘羹剩飯喂狗了。
    13 creek 3orzL     
    n.小溪,小河,小灣
    參考例句:
    • He sprang through the creek.他跳過小河。
    • People sunbathe in the nude on the rocks above the creek.人們在露出小溪的巖石上裸體曬日光浴。
    14 creeks creeks     
    n.小灣( creek的名詞復數 );小港;小河;小溪
    參考例句:
    • The prospect lies between two creeks. 礦區位于兩條溪流之間。 來自辭典例句
    • There was the excitement of fishing in country creeks with my grandpa on cloudy days. 有在陰雨天和姥爺一起到鄉村河灣釣魚的喜悅。 來自辭典例句
    15 shrubs b480276f8eea44e011d42320b17c3619     
    灌木( shrub的名詞復數 )
    參考例句:
    • The gardener spent a complete morning in trimming those two shrubs. 園丁花了整個上午的時間修剪那兩處灌木林。
    • These shrubs will need more light to produce flowering shoots. 這些灌木需要更多的光照才能抽出開花的新枝。
    16 scattered 7jgzKF     
    adj.分散的,稀疏的;散步的;疏疏落落的
    參考例句:
    • Gathering up his scattered papers,he pushed them into his case.他把散亂的文件收拾起來,塞進文件夾里。
    17 zigzag Hf6wW     
    n.曲折,之字形;adj.曲折的,鋸齒形的;adv.曲折地,成鋸齒形地;vt.使曲折;vi.曲折前行
    參考例句:
    • The lightning made a zigzag in the sky.閃電在天空劃出一道Z字形。
    • The path runs zigzag up the hill.小徑向山頂蜿蜒盤旋。
    18 zigzagged 81e4abcab1a598002ec58745d5f3d496     
    adj.呈之字形移動的v.彎彎曲曲地走路,曲折地前進( zigzag的過去式和過去分詞 )
    參考例句:
    • The office buildings were slightly zigzagged to fit available ground space. 辦公大樓為了配合可用的地皮建造得略呈之字形。 來自《現代英漢綜合大詞典》
    • The lightning zigzagged through the church yard. 閃電呈之字形劃過教堂的院子。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
    19 labored zpGz8M     
    adj.吃力的,謹慎的v.努力爭取(for)( labor的過去式和過去分詞 );苦干;詳細分析;(指引擎)緩慢而困難地運轉
    參考例句:
    • I was close enough to the elk to hear its labored breathing. 我離那頭麋鹿非常近,能聽見它吃力的呼吸聲。 來自辭典例句
    • They have labored to complete the job. 他們努力完成這一工作。 來自辭典例句
    20 refineries f6f752d4dedfa84ee0eead1d97a27bb2     
    精煉廠( refinery的名詞復數 )
    參考例句:
    • The efforts on closedown and suspension of small sugar refineries, small saccharin refineries and small paper mills are also being carried out in steps. 關停小糖廠、小糖精廠、小造紙廠的工作也已逐步展開。
    • Hence the sitting of refineries is at a distance from population centres. 所以,煉油廠的廠址總在遠離人口集中的地方。
    21 buffalo 1Sby4     
    n.(北美)野牛;(亞洲)水牛
    參考例句:
    • Asian buffalo isn't as wild as that of America's. 亞洲水牛比美洲水牛溫順些。
    • The boots are made of buffalo hide. 這雙靴子是由水牛皮制成的。
    22 graceful deHza     
    adj.優美的,優雅的;得體的
    參考例句:
    • His movements on the parallel bars were very graceful.他的雙杠動作可帥了!
    • The ballet dancer is so graceful.芭蕾舞演員的姿態是如此的優美。
    23 antelope fwKzN     
    n.羚羊;羚羊皮
    參考例句:
    • Choosing the antelope shows that China wants a Green Olympics.選擇藏羚羊表示中國需要綠色奧運。
    • The tiger was dragging the antelope across the field.老虎拖著羚羊穿過原野。
    24 abounded 40814edef832fbadb4cebe4735649eb5     
    v.大量存在,充滿,富于( abound的過去式和過去分詞 )
    參考例句:
    • Get-rich-quick schemes abounded, and many people lost their savings. “生財之道”遍地皆是,然而許多人一生積攢下來的錢轉眼之間付之東流。 來自英漢非文學 - 政府文件
    • Shoppers thronged the sidewalks. Olivedrab and navy-blue uniforms abounded. 人行道上逛商店的人摩肩接踵,身著草綠色和海軍藍軍裝的軍人比比皆是。 來自辭典例句
    25 torrent 7GCyH     
    n.激流,洪流;爆發,(話語等的)連發
    參考例句:
    • The torrent scoured a channel down the hillside. 急流沿著山坡沖出了一條溝。
    • Her pent-up anger was released in a torrent of words.她壓抑的憤怒以滔滔不絕的話爆發了出來。
    26 terrain sgeyk     
    n.地面,地形,地圖
    參考例句:
    • He had made a detailed study of the terrain.他對地形作了縝密的研究。
    • He knows the terrain of this locality like the back of his hand.他對這一帶的地形了如指掌。
    27 fawns a9864fc63c4f2c9051323de695c0f1d6     
    n.(未滿一歲的)幼鹿( fawn的名詞復數 );淺黃褐色;乞憐者;奉承者v.(尤指狗等)跳過來往人身上蹭以示親熱( fawn的第三人稱單數 );巴結;討好
    參考例句:
    • He fawns on anyone in an influential position. 他向一切身居要職的人諂媚。 來自辭典例句
    • The way Michael fawns on the boss makes heave. 邁克討好老板的樣子真叫我惡心。 來自互聯網
    28 halfway Xrvzdq     
    adj.中途的,不徹底的,部分的;adv.半路地,在中途,在半途
    參考例句:
    • We had got only halfway when it began to get dark.走到半路,天就黑了。
    • In study the worst danger is give up halfway.在學習上,最忌諱的是有始無終。
    29 continental Zazyk     
    adj.大陸的,大陸性的,歐洲大陸的
    參考例句:
    • A continental climate is different from an insular one.大陸性氣候不同于島嶼氣候。
    • The most ancient parts of the continental crust are 4000 million years old.大陸地殼最古老的部分有40億年歷史。
    30 gasp UfxzL     
    n.喘息,氣喘;v.喘息;氣吁吁他說
    參考例句:
    • She gave a gasp of surprise.她吃驚得大口喘氣。
    • The enemy are at their last gasp.敵人在做垂死的掙扎。
    31 gasped e6af294d8a7477229d6749fa9e8f5b80     
    v.喘氣( gasp的過去式和過去分詞 );喘息;倒抽氣;很想要
    參考例句:
    • She gasped at the wonderful view. 如此美景使她驚訝得屏住了呼吸。
    • People gasped with admiration at the superb skill of the gymnasts. 體操運動員的高超技藝令人贊嘆。 來自《現代漢英綜合大詞典》
    32 disorder Et1x4     
    n.紊亂,混亂;騷動,騷亂;疾病,失調
    參考例句:
    • When returning back,he discovered the room to be in disorder.回家后,他發現屋子里亂七八糟。
    • It contained a vast number of letters in great disorder.里面七零八落地裝著許多信件。
    33 alley Cx2zK     
    n.小巷,胡同;小徑,小路
    參考例句:
    • We live in the same alley.我們住在同一條小巷里。
    • The blind alley ended in a brick wall.這條死胡同的盡頭是磚墻。
    34 revolve NBBzX     
    vi.(使)旋轉;循環出現
    參考例句:
    • The planets revolve around the sun.行星繞著太陽運轉。
    • The wheels began to revolve slowly.車輪開始慢慢轉動。
    35 apparatus ivTzx     
    n.裝置,器械;器具,設備
    參考例句:
    • The school's audio apparatus includes films and records.學校的視聽設備包括放映機和錄音機。
    • They had a very refined apparatus.他們有一套非常精良的設備。
    36 catching cwVztY     
    adj.易傳染的,有魅力的,迷人的,接住
    參考例句:
    • There are those who think eczema is catching.有人就是認為濕疹會傳染。
    • Enthusiasm is very catching.熱情非常富有感染力。
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